Tuesday, May 29, 2012

沙巴《20條款》失效?


這幾天被挑起的《20條款》,有說早已無效,有說永久有效,有說已納入了憲法,有說名存實亡,也有說一些條款未被採納。

眾說紛紜,誰說的最正確?

何謂《20條款》?可能大部份州民對此多一知半解,更甭說年輕的一代。

記得在讀書時期,教課書上也從未提及有此《20條款》。

《20條款》是1963年,由當時仍是北婆羅洲的沙巴、砂拉越和馬來亞聯合邦(包括新加坡)組成馬來西亞聯邦時所簽下的。

由於沙砂兩州當時的環境與人文結構與半島的差距頗大(現在仍是),《20條款》旨在保護北婆羅洲和砂拉越在各領域的自治利益和權益。

讓我根據我所瞭解,來逐一研究這《20條款》是否還存在,或名存實亡。

第一條:宗教
不反對回教是聯邦官方宗教,但相同條款不適用於婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越),這兩州不應該被制定有任何官方宗教。

(沙砂兩州原本沒有官方宗教,但州政府在70年代將回教列為官方宗教。)

第二條:語言
(a)馬來語(Bahasa Melayu)是聯邦官方語言,
(b)從大馬日開始的10年內,英語必須繼續被使用,
(c)英語應被列為婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)的官方語言,可在州級或聯邦用途上無時限使用。

(沙砂兩州的官方語言原本是英語,但也同樣在70年代被州政府改將馬來語列為官方語言。)

第三條:憲法
馬來西亞聯邦憲法應建立在馬來亞憲法的基礎上,並在製定時獲得各州的同意。與此同時,為婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)制訂的新憲法也應被重視。

(當兩者有所衝突或產生矛盾時,將以聯邦憲法爲準。)

第四條:聯邦最高元首
婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)州元首無權角逐聯邦最高元首一職。

(對沙砂兩州來說,這其實是一個限制,并非權益。)

第五條:國家的正式名稱
國名應作馬來西亞(Malaysia)而不是馬拉尤拉亞(Melayu Raya)。

(這只是為國家正名,不算是什麽權益。還是,當年半島要將國家稱為馬拉尤拉亞?)

第六條:移民權
州外移民權由中央政府管理,但出入婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)須由州政府批准。婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)應保有出入州境之控制權。

(沙砂兩州保留出入境移民權。)

第七條:脫離聯邦權利
沙巴和砂拉越完全沒有脫離聯邦權利。

(這也是一個限制,不是權益。)

第八條:婆羅州化(Borneanisation)
聯邦應加速沙巴和砂拉越公共服務系統的本土化。

(公共服務應該儘快本土化,但何謂本土化?)

第九條:英國官員
可擔任婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)原有的職務直至符合資格的新人上任為止。

(此條款只符合當時,現已過時。)

第十條:公民權
凡在獨立後在婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)出世的人士自動成為聯邦公民。

(這也包括在本地出生的外來移民後代。)

第十一條:稅務與財務
婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)應保留自身財務、發展和稅務的權力。

(這與半島州屬各有稅務與財務之自主權一樣。)

第十二條:土著特定地位
基本上,婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)之土著應享有與馬來亞之馬來人一樣的特權,但婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)不必完全跟隨馬來亞之馬來人方案。

(這已納入聯邦憲法。)

第十三條:州政府
(a)首長應由州立法院之非官方代表選出;
(b)婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)應採用類似聯邦的部長制(Ministerial System),而不是州政治委員制(EXCO)

(記得沙巴可以官委六位州議員嗎?不過,首長不可官委,必須是民選出來的。)

第十四條:過渡時期
在七年過渡期內,婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)之立法權力將由州憲法賦予,而非由聯邦賦予州政府。

(此條款已過時。)

第十五條:教育
婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)原本之教育制度應獲得保留,因此,州教育事務應全權由州政府行使。

(實際上教育制度已由聯邦控制。)

(順帶一提UMS的中譯「沙巴大學」,其實,UMS的中譯應該是「沙巴馬來西亞大學」,是馬大在沙巴之分校的意思,不是州屬大學。砂拉越大學也是一樣。)

第十六條:憲法維護
未經過婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)人民的同意,中央政府無權修改或撤消聯邦憲法內保護州人民與政府的條款。

(名存實亡?)

第十七條:聯邦國會代表權
在劃分選區時應考量沙巴和砂拉越州人口分佈與發展潛能,總之皆不可比新加坡少。

(新加坡已經脫離馬來西亞,所以已無可比較。)

第十八條:州元首的稱呼
Yang Di-Pertua Negara。

(Negara已改成為Negeri。)

第十九條:州名
Sabah or Sarawak 

(沙巴或砂拉越。)

第二十條:土地、森林與地方政府
聯邦憲法賦予國家土地局與地方政府委員會的管理權將只局限在馬來亞。婆羅洲(沙巴和砂拉越)將在州憲法下管理本身的土地、森林與地方政府的事務。

(沙砂兩州保留土地權。)

看起來,似乎只有移民權和土地權仍在州政府的掌控中。

所以,這《20條款》,有說早已無效,有說永久有效,有說納入了憲法,有說名存實亡,也有說有些條款未被採納。

你說呢?

The 20 Points Agreement 

Point 1: Religion
While there was no objection to Islam being the national religion of Malaysia there should be no State religion in Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah), and the provisions relating to Islam in the present Constitution of Malaya should not apply to Borneo. 

Point 2: Language 
* a. Malay should be the national language of the Federation 
* b. English should continue to be used for a period of 10 years after Malaysia Day 
* c. English should be an official language of Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) for all purposes, State or Federal, without limitation of time. 

Point 3: Constitution 
Whilst accepting that the present Constitution of the Federation of Malaya should form the basis of the Constitution of Malaysia, the Constitution of Malaysia should be a completely new document drafted and agreed in the light of a free association of states and should not be a series of amendments to a Constitution drafted and agreed by different states in totally different circumstances. A new Constitution for Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) was of course essential. 

Point 4: Head of Federation 
The Head of State in Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) should not be eligible for election as Head of the Federation. 

Point 5: Name of Federation 
“Malaysia” but not “Melayu Raya” 

Point 6: Immigration 
Control over immigration into any part of Malaysia from outside should rest with the Central Government but entry into Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) should also require the approval of the State Government. The Federal Government should not be able to veto the entry of persons into Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) for State Government purposes except on strictly security grounds. Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) should have unfettered control over the movements of persons other than those in Federal Government employ from other parts of Malaysia Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah). 

Point 7: Right of Secession 
There should be no right to secede from the Federation 

Point 8: Borneanisation 
Borneanisation of the public service should proceed as quickly as possible. 

Point 9: British Officers 
Every effort should be made to encourage British Officers to remain in the public service until their places can be taken by suitably qualified people from Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) 

Point 10: Citizenship 
The recommendation in paragraph 148(k) of the Report of the Cobbold Commission should govern the citizenship rights in the Federation of Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) subject to the following amendments: 
* a) sub-paragraph (i) should not contain the proviso as to five years residence 
* b) in order to tie up with our law, sub-paragraph (ii)(a) should read “7 out of 10 years” instead of “8 out of 10 years” 
* c) sub-paragraph (iii) should not contain any restriction tied to the citizenship of parents – a person born in Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) after Malaysia must be federal citizen. 

Point 11: Tariffs and Finance 
Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) should retain control of its own finance, development and tariff, and should have the right to work up its own taxation and to raise loans on its own credit. 

Point 12: Special position of indigenous races 
In principle, the indigenous races of Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) should enjoy special rights analogous to those enjoyed by Malays in Malaya, but the present Malays’ formula in this regard is not necessarily applicable in Borneo(Sarawak & Sabah). 

Point 13: State Government 
* a) the Prime Minister should be elected by unofficial members of Legislative Council 
* b) There should be a proper Ministerial system in Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah). 

Point 14: Transitional period 
This should be seven years and during such period legislative power must be left with the State of Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) by the Constitution and not be merely delegated to the State Government by the Federal Government. 

Point 15: Education 
The existing educational system of Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) should be maintained and for this reason it should be under state control. 

Point 16: Constitutional safeguards 
No amendment modification or withdrawal of any special safeguard granted to Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) should be made by the Central Government without the positive concurrence of the Government of the State of North Borneo 

The power of amending the Constitution of the State of Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) should belong exclusively to the people in the state. (Note: The United Party, The Democratic Party and the Pasok Momogun Party considered that a three-fourth majority would be required in order to effect any amendment to the Federal and State Constitutions whereas the UNKO and USNO considered a two-thirds majority would be sufficient). 

Point 17: Representation in Federal Parliament 
This should take account not only of the population of Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah) but also of its seize and potentialities and in any case should not be less than that of Singapore. 

Point 18: Name of Head of State 
Yang di-Pertua Negara. 

Point 19: Name of State 
Sarawak or Sabah. 

Point 20: Land, Forests, Local Government, etc. 
The provisions in the Constitution of the Federation in respect of the powers of the National Land Council should not apply in Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah). Likewise, the National Council for Local Government should not apply in Borneo (Sarawak & Sabah). 

2 comments:

大佬:“反秤复民” said...

第八条本土化,即联邦政府部门在沙巴的署所须由本土人担任公务员。

萬籽 said...

哇!第十條。。。。不是很夠力?

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