Friday, 10 July 2009

当知识分子遇到政治


The Republic(理想国)是古希腊哲学家柏拉图的一本重要著作,里边提出一个问题:“甚麽是正义?”

正义是“将他人的东西归还给他人吗”?

正义是“将善给朋友,把恶给敌人吗”?

书里提到,苏格拉底认为,统治者有时是会犯错的。只有当统治者具有使他免於犯错的知识时,他才能够统治自己和他人。

有正义的统治者关心的不只是他个人,统治者统治是为了被统治者(人民)的利益,不是为了统治者本身的利益。

2001年,美国思想史学者Mark Lilla(马克里拉)写了一本书:The Reckless Mind---Intellectuals in Politics(当知识份子遇到政治),里边谈到《理想国》里的一个故事:The Lure of Syracuse(叙拉古的诱惑)。

叙拉古是希腊地中海上的一个岛国。小国的新国王对柏拉图非常崇拜,但他却与老国王一样暴戾。

柏拉图在学生的邀请下,先后三次到叙拉古去,欲向这位年轻的暴君传授他的思想与哲学。

但,柏拉图发现,这位国王态度傲慢,他并没有心向学,他只想借柏拉图来炫耀自己。

柏拉图遭受了种种磨难,他也一次又一次失望地离开。

后来,“重返叙拉古”也就成了那个时代知识分子对政治的热情与幻灭的代名词。

在《当知识分子遇到政治》这本书里,马克里拉列举了现代的真实个案,探讨20世纪欧洲的“叙拉古现象”。

他发现,无论是在民主社会还是法西斯社会,无论是否受到极权的压迫,一些知识分子会用自己的专业知识去支持,甚至参与极权原则或暴政政治。

他们本应拥有独立的清晰思想,却禁不住叙拉古的诱惑,自愿深陷政治泥沼,助纣为虐。

叙拉古的诱惑,其实就是权力的诱惑。

为了权力,知识分子可以背叛本身的崇高理想,成为极权暴政或恐怖政体的支持者和拥戴者。

知识本身不会害人,它和权力一样,一旦被人滥用或利用,它才会害人不浅。

(旧作 · 2007 · 05 · 10)

12 comments:

山城客 said...

毛泽东也曾说过:要当人民的先生,先当人民的学生。当知识分子遇到政治,应该改变政治,而不是被政治改变;行使真正实际的正义,而不是挂正义之名。

郑展兴 said...

值得深思的题目,有机会会找一本,应该值得一读。

Grass said...

很有意思的一篇文章。人有人性,人性有正亦有邪,心魔里正邪之争,至今胜负难分。。。

· 康華 · said...

我觉得,知识分子要关心政治,但他也必须超越政治,才能对事情作出公正与无私的判断;当他参与政治,就像“人在江湖,身不由己”,有时为五斗米折腰,为了名利权位,不得不违背良知,助纣为虐而不自觉。

但另一方面,如果知识分子不参与政治,那执政者都是些庸才和贪官污吏,国家岂不更加大乱?

不知各位看法如何?

Chu Kong Ming (朱刚明) said...

Professionals or scholars must have political integrity when involving in politic.

If one could influence the government to the right path and bringing the country and its people to excellence, why not?

If the head of the organization is a public enemy, then one shouldn't help the bad leaders to harm or hurt the people.

This is a matter of principle and conscience.

· 康華 · said...

However, for party unity sake, sometime you have to go along with the party decision eventhough you may not agree with the decision.

Grass said...

The struggle between 正邪 is always there, in our heart, between parties' figures. When 正 prevails,the citizens benefit and vice versa. Conscience is much more vital than academic records. But 邪 never can be totally eradicated as it is embedded inside most of us, hence the struggle will last forever.

Chu Kong Ming (朱刚明) said...

康华,
Yes, your view is agreed somewhat as it's a reality in life (not just in politic alone); sometimes one would have to bend oneself within the acceptable 'integrity' level in order not to cause detrimental damages to one's interest. However, if the situation becomes 'intolerable' (based on one's consciousness), the only way is 'resigned' from the organization.(or get ready to be sacked or ousted?).

· 康華 · said...

I think it depends on one's conscience, 问心无愧就好。

Frank C said...

Their child need money for best school.

Their house need renovation.

Their car was down.....

What control ppl's mind is not politic, it's the best car, best dress, best house.......

Human's need is infinitive.

We, ought to learn how to be contented to what you have.

· 康華 · said...

Frank C,

Will our conscience be overpowered by greed? That's an interesting question. When we are given the same opportunity to corrupt and the temptation to be immoral, will we do the same things? Only ourselves would know.

大佬 said...

我的知识,不论到我来运用,而是由他人来利用。衰在顽疾缠脚,才不和他人斤斤计较。真是做什么都身不由己,谁叫自己没有本事,连残障人士都不如。

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